Photogrammetric Mapping Surveying Method

Photogrammetric mapping may be developed from aerial photographs and is particularly useful for showing land contours, site conditions and details for large areas.

Usually the photography is made specifically for the project involved. Ground control surveys must be used to establish measurements, both horizontally and vertically, to photo identifiable points in order to insure scale accuracy of the photo model.

GPS - Global Satellite Positioning Surveying Method

Sophisticated electronic equipment using orbiting satellites to determine both horizontal and vertical placement on the face of the earth is a relatively new innovation.

 This is usually limited to large control surveys and governmental projects, but its use, in time, will become more prevalent.

Electronic Measuring Surveying Method

Electronic distance measuring equipment using light beams coupled with theodolites, enable the surveyor to measure precise angles and distances with greater ease and accuracy.

This also allows measurements across swamps, valleys, and other terrain impractical or impossible to measure using steel tapes. Electronic angle sensing on theodolites and electronic data recording are other recent additions to modern surveying equipment.

Transit and Tape Surveying Method

Angles are measured with a transit or theodolite and distance is measured with a surveyor's steel tape, giving the accuracy required for modern boundary or land title surveys.

Compass and Chain Surveying Method

Surveying with a magnetic compass and surveyor's chain was the method employed in most of the original subdivisions of the Commonwealth. Today the method is primarily used for reconnaissance surveys of large tracts.